8 Legitimate Grounds for Congress to Initiate Impeachment Proceedings Against Trump

Widespread corruption, abuse of power and a threat to our republic.

As we demonstrate in a new paper, The Legal Case for a Congressional Investigation on Whether to Impeach President Donald J. Trump, based on publicly reported information, as of today there are at least eight grounds for the House of Representatives to authorize the Judiciary Committee to begin hearings on whether to impeach President Donald J. Trump.

This paper presents a legal analysis based on the text, structure and history of the Constitution and federal law, and legal and political precedent, that we have developed in consultation with a wide range of experts over the past ten months. Some of the grounds for investigation are based on violations of specific enumerated constitutional or statutory provisions, but in keeping with the intent of the Founders and the 200-year history of impeachments, other grounds are based on abuses of power that do not fall easily within a specific proscription.

Here are the grounds for investigation.

1. Obstructing justice.

Beginning soon after the inauguration, the president engaged in a course of conduct that sought to obstruct justice in the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s investigations of Lieutenant General Michael Flynn and of his own campaign’s potential involvement with Russian activity in the 2016 election.

2. Violating the Foreign Emoluments Clause and Domestic Emoluments Clause of the U.S. Constitution.

Through his businesses in the United States and abroad, the president receives payments, regulatory approval, and other forms of direct and indirect financial benefits from foreign governments. These violate the Constitution’s Foreign Emoluments Clause, which prohibits federal officials, including the president, from receiving a “present” or “emolument” from any foreign government or official. The president’s businesses also act as a conduit for enrichment from federal and state government coffers. These violate the Domestic Emoluments Clause, which prohibits the president from receiving, beyond his official salary, any emolument from the United States or any state.

3. Conspiring with others to commit crimes against the United States involving the solicitation and intended receipt by his presidential campaign of things of value from a foreign government and other foreign nationals, and to conceal those violations.

In the 2016 election, the senior officials of Trump’s presidential campaign (including his campaign chairman, his son and his son-in-law) met with Russian nationals after an invitation to receive compromising information about his campaign opponent, Hillary Clinton, that they were told would be of great value to the campaign. Federal campaign finance law prohibits a candidate or campaign from soliciting a foreign national (including a foreign government) for a thing of value. In 2017, after this meeting was revealed, President Trump personally dictated a misleading public statement on behalf of his son about the intended purpose of the meeting.

4. Advocating illegal violence, giving aid and comfort to white supremacists and neo-Nazis, and undermining constitutional protections of equal protection under the law.

Over the course of 2017, the president has made a series of public statements that together, constitute a pattern of conduct violating his constitutional obligation to “take care that the laws be faithfully executed,” protect the citizenry against “domestic violence,” and ensure “the equal protection of the laws.”

5. Abusing the pardon power.

The president’s pardon of former Arizona sheriff Joseph Arpaio, who had been convicted of criminal contempt of court for willfully violating a court order to stop violating the constitutional rights of Latino drivers, abused the pardon power by sending the dangerous message that similarly inclined unscrupulous law enforcement officials could not only violate individual rights, but could violate court orders requiring them to stop violating those rights with impunity because the president would support them.

6. Threatening nuclear war against foreign nations, undermining and subverting the essential diplomatic functions and authority of federal agencies, including the Department of State, and engaging in other conduct that grossly and wantonly endangers the peace and security of the United States, its people and people of other nations, by heightening the risk of hostilities involving weapons of mass destruction, with reckless disregard for the risk of death and grievous bodily harm.

Through a series of public statements (including on Twitter), and beginning particularly in the late summer of 2017, the president has made increasingly reckless public threats against North Korea. It is not clear whether President Trump understands the ramifications of his actions. While the president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, reckless or wanton conduct with the potential for millions of deaths constitutes an abuse of power.

7. Directing or endeavoring to direct law enforcement, including the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to investigate and prosecute political adversaries and others, for improper purposes not justified by any lawful function of his office, thereby eroding the rule of law, undermining the independence of law enforcement from politics, and compromising the constitutional right to due process of law.

The president has repeatedly pressured federal law enforcement to investigate and prosecute political adversaries, including former campaign opponent Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party. The president’s attempts to employ the criminal investigative powers of the federal government against political opponents for purposes unrelated to national security, the enforcement of laws, or any other lawful function of his office are grounds for impeachment.

8. Undermining the freedom of the press.

The president has repeatedly attacked major U.S. news organizations as “fake news” and the “enemy of the American people.” The president is certainly free to criticize particular news stories he believes are inaccurate, and no one tweet in isolation constitutes an impeachable offense. But his consistent pattern of attacks undermines a critical foundation of a free society.

Purpose of Impeachment

Some of the impeachable offenses discussed in the paper overlap with the criminal investigation of special counsel Robert Mueller; some overlap with other pending federal litigation; others do not overlap with any parallel proceeding. However, as our paper explains, an impeachment investigation is entirely separate from a criminal or other judicial proceeding. The purpose of impeachment is not to punish for past crimes, but to remove from office a dangerous official who threatens the rule of law and the republic itself.

Congress must not use the Mueller investigation or other litigation as an excuse to shirk its duty to conduct its own independent impeachment hearings. The abuse of power, the corruption and the threat to our republic are here now.

 

Related Stories

  • Alabama Stunner: Democrat Doug Jones Defeats Right-Wing Extremist Roy Moore in Photo Finish U.S. Senate Race
  • Alabama Supreme Court Blocks Digital Ballot Preservation in Eleventh Hour
  • Alabama Supreme Court Blocks Digital Ballot Preservation Requirement to Verify the Vote in Tuesday’s Senate Election

SQLite Overview with Installation_pRoCess and self-start examples:SQL – Where all to UsE ?

sqlite image


SQLite is embedded relational database management system. It is self-contained, serverless, zero configuration and transactional SQL database engine. SQLite is free to use for any purpose commercial or private. In other words, “SQLite is an open source, zero-configuration, self-contained, stand alone, transaction relational database engine designed to be embedded into an application”.

SQLite is different from other SQL databases because unlike most other SQL databases, SQLite does not have a separate server process. It reads and writes directly to ordinary disk files. A complete SQL database with multiple tables, indices, triggers, and views, is contained in a single disk file. SQLite was designed by D. Richard Hipp for the purpose of no administration required for operating a program in 2000.

SQLite Features

Following is a list of features which makes SQLite popular among other lightweight databases:

  • SQLite is open-source. License is not required to work with it.
  • SQLite doesn’t require a different server process or system to operate.
  • It facilitates you to work on multiple databases on the same session on the same time.
  • SQLite doesn’t require configuration. No setup or administration required.
  • SQLite is a cross-platform DBMS.
  • The length of the columns is variable and is not fixed. It facilitates you to allocate only the space a field needs.
  • Provide large number of API’s: SQLite provides API for a large range of programming languages.
  • SQLite is written in ANSI-C and provides simple and easy-to-use API.

SQLite Limitations

There are few unsupported features of SQLite which are listed below:-
  • Right Outer Join and Full Outer Join is not Supported.
  • The RENAME TABLE and ADD COLUMN variants of the ALTER TABLE command are supported. The DROP COLUMN, ALTER COLUMN, ADD CONSTRAINT are not supported.
  • FOR EACH ROW triggers are supported but not FOR EACH STATEMENT triggers.
  • VIEWs in SQLite are read-only. You may not execute a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statement on a view.
  • The only access permissions that can be applied are the normal file access permissions of the underlying operating system.

SQLite Installation

SQLite doesn’t require configuration. No setup or administration required. Lets see how to install SQLite on different Systems such as Windows, Linux.

Install SQLite on Windows

Step 1: Go to SQLite official website download page http://www.sqlite.org/download.html And download precompiled binaries from Windows section.
Step 2: Download the sqlite-dll and sqlite-shell zip file. Or sqlite-tools-win32-x86-3170000.zip file.
Step 3: Create a folder C:>sqlite and unzip above two zipped files in this folder, which will give you sqlite3.def, sqlite3.dll and sqlite3.exe files.
Step 4: Add C:>sqlite in your PATH environment variable and finally go to the command prompt and issue sqlite3 command, which should display the following result.
sqlite shell

Install SQLite on Linux

Today, almost all the Linux OS are being shipped with SQLite. So you just issue the following command to check if you already have SQLite installed on your machine.
$sqlite3
SQLite version 3.7.15.2 2013-01-09 11:53:05
Enter ".help" for instructions
Enter SQL statements terminated with a ";"
sqlite>
If you do not see the above result, then it means you do not have SQLite installed on your Linux machine. Follow following Steps
Step 1: Go to SQLite download page and download sqlite-autoconf-*.tar.gz from source code section.
Step 2: Run the following command :
$tar xvfz sqlite-autoconf-3071502.tar.gz
$cd sqlite-autoconf-3071502
$./configure --prefix = /usr/local
$make
$make install
The above command will install SQLite on Linux.

SQLite Commands

SQLite commands are similar to SQL commands. There are three types of SQLite commands:
DDL: Data Definition Language
  • CREATE: Creates a new table, a view of a table, or other object in database.
  • ALTER: It is used to modify an existing database object like a table.
  • DROP: Deletes an entire table, a view of a table or other object in the database.
DML: Data Manipulation Language
  • INSERT: This command is used to create a record.
  • UPDATE: It is used to modify the records.
  • DELETE: It is used to delete records.
DQL: Data Query Language
  • SELECT: This command is used to retrieve certain records from one or more table.

SQLite Create Table Command

In SQLite, CREATE TABLE statement is used to create a new table. While creating the table, we name that table and define its column and data types of each column.
Syntax:
CREATE TABLE database_name.table_name(  
column1 datatype PRIMARY KEY(one or more columns),
column2 datatype,
column3 datatype,
.....
columnN datatype,
);
Example
CREATE TABLE SCTPL(  
ID int PRIMARY KEY not null,
NAME TEXT,
Address TEXT,
);
You can view the tables created in SQLite using .table command and .schema command is used to view the table details.

sqlite create table command

SQLite Insert Query

In SQLite, INSERT INTO statement is used to add new rows of data into a table. After creating the table, this command is used to insert data into the table.
There are two types of basic syntaxes for INSERT INTO statement:
Syntax-1:
INSERT INTO TABLE_NAME (column1, column2, column3,...columnN)    
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...valueN);
Here, column1, column2, column3,…columnN specifies the name of the columns in the table into which you have to insert data.

You don’t need to specify the columns name in the SQlite query if you are adding values to all the columns in the table. But you should make sure that the order of the values is in the same order of the columns in the table.
Then the syntax will be like this:
Syntax-2:
INSERT INTO TABLE_NAME VALUES (value1,value2,value3,...valueN);
Example
Inserting values by first method:
INSERT INTO SCTPL (id, name,address)   
VALUES (101, Suven Consultants,Chembur);



Inserting values by second method:
INSERT INTO SCTPL VALUES (102,Suven Consultants,Thane);



SQLite SELECT Query

In SQLite database, SELECT statement is used to fetch data from a table. When we create a table and insert some data into that, we have to fetch the data whenever we require. That’s why select query is used.
Syntax:
SELECT column1, column2, columnN FROM table_name;
OR
SELECT * FROM table_name;
Example
SELECT * FROM SCTPL;

Do you want to learn Database Programming?